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Bantu Legal

Bantu Legal

by: cFadmin

However, copyrighted images or third-party materials contained in the publication may be protected by copyright. Please note that written permission from copyright holders and/or other rights holders (such as publication and/or data protection rights) is required for the distribution, reproduction or other use of protected goods beyond what is permitted by fair dealing or other legal exceptions. The responsibility for an independent legal evaluation of an article and obtaining the necessary permits ultimately rests with those who wish to use the article. You are responsible for deciding whether your use of the items in this collection is legal. You will require written permission from the rights holders to copy, distribute or otherwise use copyrighted material, except to the extent permitted by fair dealing or other legal exceptions. Some documents may be protected by international law. You may also need permission from holders of other rights, such as rights of publicity and/or privacy. Under the Act, the Department of Indigenous Affairs, headed by Hendrik Verwoerd, was held responsible for the education of black South Africans; In 1958, the Bantu Education Department was founded. Black children were required by law to attend public schools. Classes were to be conducted in the students` native language, although the curriculum included classes in English and Afrikaans.

Lessons were prescribed in manual labor (for girls), handicrafts, planting and soil protection, as well as in arithmetic, social studies and the Christian religion. The education was aimed at educating children for manual labor and menial labor that the government deemed appropriate for those of their race, and it was explicitly intended to convey the idea that blacks should agree to submit to white South Africans. Funding for schools had to come from taxes paid by the communities they served, so black schools received only a small fraction of the amount of money available to their white counterparts. As a result, there was a severe shortage of qualified teachers, and the teacher-student ratio ranged from 40-1 to 60-1. An attempt by activists to create alternative schools (called cultural clubs because these schools were illegal under the Education Act) to provide children with a better education had collapsed in the late 1950s. This law “authorized the government to expel any African from any of the cities or areas of white culture at any time” (Thompson 1990:199). It was “the most rigid of apartheid legislation to date.” [It] provided the legal framework to deprive blacks of most of their remaining rights in the white areas in exchange for independence in their own countries of tribal origin. The Minister of Bantu Administration was authorized to create “no-go zones” where he could limit both the total number of black workers and the number of blacks employed in a particular industry. It could also prohibit the continued use of black labor in any geographic area and send surplus black workers to bantustans” (Riley 1991:90). Mcdonald, Neil R., author and editor of Library Of Congress. Legal Library. The legality of Bantu marriages is the common cohabitation in South Africa.

[Washington, D.C.: Law Library, Library of Congress, 1975] pdf. www.loc.gov/item/2019668885/. The ruling National Party saw education as a fairly central position in its goal of completely separating South Africa from the Bantustans. Verwoerd, “the architect of apartheid,” said:[2] The salaries of black teachers were extremely low in 1953, which led to a dramatic decline in the number of potential teachers. Only a third of black teachers were qualified. [2] nmmu.ac.za/documents/mward/Bantu%20Education%20Act%201953.pdf[permanent death link] Bantu Education Act, 1953 (Act No. 1953). 47 of 1953; Later renamed the Black Education Act, 1953) was a South African segregation law that legislated on various aspects of the apartheid system. Its most important offer forced racially separated educational institutions. [1] Even universities were turned into “tribal schools,” and all but three missionary schools decided to close if the government stopped helping to support their schools. Very few authorities continued to use their own funds to support the education of indigenous Africans.

[2] In 1959, with the University Education Extension Act, this type of education was extended to “non-white” universities and colleges, and Fort Hare University College was taken over by the government and demoted to the Bantu education system. [3] It is often argued that Bantu (African) education policy was aimed at bringing black and non-white youth into the unskilled labour market,[4] although Hendrik Verwoerd, the Minister of Indigenous Affairs, claimed that the aim was to solve South Africa`s “ethnic problems” by creating complementary economic and political units for different ethnic groups. The law has led to a significant increase in public funding for educational institutions for black Africans, but they have not kept pace with population growth. [5] The law required institutions to be under the direct control of the state. The National Party now had the power to hire and train teachers as it saw fit. The Act was repealed in 1979 by the Education and Training Act 1979, which maintained the education system based on racial segregation, but also eliminated both discrimination in tuition fees and the separate Bantu Department of Education, allowing both the use of mother-tongue education up to the fourth grade and limited attendance at private schools. [7] Barber & Barratt (1990:120) date this law to 1973 (another change?), while Thompson (1990:199) dates it to 1964. However, Riley (1991:90) specifically mentions that this Act came into force on 1 January 1965. In the 1970s, per capita public spending on black education was one-tenth of that spent on whites. [4] Racial segregation became unconstitutional after the introduction of the Transitional Constitution in 1994, and most sections of the Education and Training Act were repealed by the South African Schools Act of 1996.

The Bantu Education Act created a separate substandard education system for black students. The purpose of this law was to ensure that black South Africans could only ever work as unskilled and semi-skilled workers, even if they were smart enough to qualify. This kept them for the servants of white South Africans. Beginning in the 1930s, the vast majority of schools serving black students in South Africa were run by missions and often run with government assistance. However, most of the children did not attend these schools. In 1949, the government appointed a commission headed by anthropologist W.W.M. Eiselen to study and make recommendations for the education of native South Africans. The report of the Eiselen Commission (1951) called on the government to take charge of the education of black South Africans in order to integrate it into a general socio-economic plan for the country. In addition, the report states that school education should be adapted to the needs and values of the cultures of the communities in which the schools were located. The Commission`s rules were generally followed by the Bantu Education Act. High schools initially focused on bantustans, reserves that the government intended to be homelands for black South Africans.

However, in the 1970s, the need for better-educated black workers led to the opening of secondary schools in Soweto, outside Johannesburg.